Participatory Climate Monitoring (PCM)

Participatory Climate Monitoring (PCM) refers to a set of activities carried out by farmers, with initial support of experts, to monitor climate parameters. It involves recording of seven climate parameters such as rainfall, relative humidity, air temperature, evaporation, wind velocity, wind direction and sunshine hours.  PCM is a tool that is intended to trigger discussion on the climate variability and its impact on their land and water resources, thereby triggering household/farm-level adaptation.

Twenty five Participatory Climate Monitoring stations were established in twenty five villages at 9 pilot hydrological units across the project area. About 295 volunteers are collect, record and disseminate climate data. Of this 65 percent are male and 35 percent are female.

Climate data is being recorded in PCM recording book especially designed for daily data recording in 143 villages of the nine pilot hydrological units. Two types of PCM data dissemination boards were erected in 143 villages. One is daily PCM data display board; and another board contains monthly graphical analysis of historical and current climate data of rainfall, maximum air temperature and minimum air temperature; and in the same board provision is provided for graphical representation of required climate and current climate for each crop stage.

Selection of sites:
PCM adopts the technical criteria of the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), in selection of PCM sites. Based on the technical criteria communicated by the Project Management Office (PMO), the Field Units identify probable sites, in consultation with their respective Climate Change Adaptation Committee (CCAC). A physical inspection of the sites is then carried out to assess the technical as well as social feasibility of the sites proposed. The sites conforming to both technical and social criteria are cleared, for establishment of PCM stations. Three sites are selected for installation of three sets of PCM equipment viz., a) Rain Gauge and Evaporation Pan; b) Stevenson Screen, consisting of two sets (maximum-minimum and dry-wet bulbs/thermometers); and c) Sunshine recorder, Wind Vane and Anemometer. Opting for three sites instead of one is expected to community participation within the HU, which consist of 10 habitations, on the average.

PCM Stations Establishment:
After the procurement process is completed, the equipment is delivered at the field Unit, by the supplier. It is essential that suitable local masons are identified and trained before the establishment process begins, at the field level. A one day mason training is at one of the actual sites in the field. The training familiarizes the masons on: required site conditions; site plan and sections; construction of platform for equipment installation; specifications and methods of fixing the equipment in the masonry structure; standards of fencing material; and construction of fence.

Identification of PCM volunteers:
A farmer who donates his/her land for PCM station is expected to have the right attitude for carrying out data collection and recording tasks. However, it is challenge to find right kind of farmers who take responsibility of PSC tasks and all possible social analytical will be used. Strategically, half of the PCM volunteers selected are women. A husband-wife duo is often identified. The total number of volunteers identified is about 500 in number, about 4 from each of the target 143 habitations. Criteria for selection of PCM volunteers are: 1) experience in data collection; 2. minimum Literacy (read and write); 3) a resident of the village where the PCM station is established; 4) could be SHG women; and 5) school children (7th/8th standard) selected by school authority.

Capacity building of PCM volunteers:
The capacity building of PCM volunteers starts with the Master Trainer Training (MTT), of one-day duration. The curriculum includes: technical aspects of equipment; their installation; data collection and recording; and upkeep of PCM stations and equipment. Those trained in master training become key resources person to impart training to volunteers in their respective HUs. Volunteers are trained at field level in respective sites for two days. The PCM Volunteer Training (PVT) is of two-day duration, mainly aiming at the skill development of volunteers in data collection and recording. This essentially consists of demonstration-practice sessions.

Data collection and hand-holding:
Without compromising on the quality of data, the procedures for data collection is kept as simple as possible using simple formats with minimum entries. Data collection starts in June, soon after establishment of PCM stations. PCM Volunteers collect data at 08.30 hours, every day. On field guidance is provided to farmers and volunteers by professional staff.

Data storage and dissemination:
PCM data records are designed and printed in the local language. Data recording is done in the PCM data record books provided to the PCM volunteers. The book consists of formats for every day recording for all instruments. There are 3 formats for three sets of equipment. The data is entered in computers at the Field Unit Office. The Field Data Collection and Monitoring Assistant (FDCMA), in coordination with the Field Facilitators ensure that PCM database is updated, on a monthly basis. The dissemination of PCM data at the habitation level is carried out through Display Boards. The design and specifications of display boards is developed by PMO and communicated to PNGOs, to ensure quality across the project.  Display boards are erected at central places of a village so that they are visible to every frequenting villager. Volunteers use the earmarked columns against each parameter to enter data. Dissemination at the project level is in the form of updating the database and uploading it on the website, on a monthly basis.

 

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